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International Organizations

United Nations Organization

UN History:

On January 1, 1942, the name United Nations was proposed by Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States. During World-War 2, 26 member states pledged to fight "Axis-Powers" with their governments.

From 1942 to 1945 the number in this organization increased to 50.

1945 A meeting of delegates from the member countries of this international body is convened in San Francisco to draft the United Nations Charter. Discussions at this meeting were preceded by the inclusion of proposals on the agenda by the 4 major member states of the organization in 1944, which were discussed with the rest of the members at the 1945 international conference.

Representatives of these 50 countries signed the United Nations Charter on 26 June 1945. Poland was not represented at the conference but became the 51st country to sign the treaty.

The Charter was formally ratified by the United Nations on 24 October 1945, signed by representatives of the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, and other member states. Since then, October 24 has been celebrated as United Nations Day every year.

Specialized agencies:

The key members of the organization formed two unions affiliated with the organization to discuss some important issues: the International Telegraph Union (1865) and the Universal Postal Union (1874), both of which are important agencies of the United Nations.

Pacific Settlement:

In 1899 the International Peace Conference was held in the city of The Hague in the Netherlands. The main purpose of this conference was to stop wars, resolve conflicts peacefully, and make a comprehensive analysis of the rules of war and weapons. The Pacific Settlement considered the above issues and established a permanent court of arbitration. This settlement came into force in 1902.

League of Nations:

The League of Nations was established during World War I and was established by the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919 to provide international assistance to establish peace and security. And the International Labor Organization was established as a subsidiary of the League of Nations under the Treaty of Versailles. The organization ceased service on 20 April 1946 due to its failure to stop the First World War.


The United Nations Secretariat is headquartered in New York City, and other affiliates have been established in various countries.

United Nations Children’s Fund

UNICEF History:

The United Nations Children’s Fund is also known as UNICEF in short. UNICEF is an agency in the United Nations. It is the most recognized agency in the world with UNICEF offices in 190 countries. UNICEF has humanitarian values for children, and a responsibility to contribute to their development. The main responsibilities of this agency are to develop immunity in children and to take appropriate measures for the prevention of diseases to provide maternal and child nutrition, treatment for HIV, hygiene, education awareness, and emergency assistance in the event of disasters.

ICEF (International Children's Emergency Fund) was established in 1946, by the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration to provide immediate treatment to mothers and children injured in World War II. That same year the United Nations General Assembly established UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund) to further accelerate relief efforts. The main purpose of this organization is to cater to the long-term needs of mothers and children in developing countries. The organization was permanently incorporated into the United Nations in 1953 and later renamed UNICEF.

UNICEF works entirely through donations from governments and private individuals of various countries. In 2018 UNICEF had a total of $5.2 billion through donations, of which over $3.4 billion came from governments, and the rest came from various private organizations. UNICEF has a 36-member executive board. The board oversees the management of all policies, financial plans, and programs. The members of this board are elected by the Social, and United Nations Economic Council, and continue to serve as a three-year member.

UNICEF has offices in 190 countries. The organization is run by 34 national committees and programs run by local governments. UNICEF has 7 regional offices that provide technical assistance to offices in other countries. All of these centers have two financial assistance centers, Copenhagen and New York, which have the capacity to provide up to $3 billion in critical situations.


According to UNICEF 2018 figures:

* Made education accessible to 12 million young children.

* Gave "pentavalent-Vaccines" to over 65M children.

* Contributed to the birth of 27M babies.

* It has treated 4M "Malnourished-children" and made them healthy.

* Responded to "285-Emergencies" in "90-countries".

* Received the UNICEF "Nobel-Peace-Prize" in 1965.

* In 1989, India-honored her with the "Indira-Gandhi-Prize".

* The organization was honored with the "Princess-of-Asturias-Award" in (2006).

* It has recently collaborated with other Organizations to eliminate - (2020) - "COVID-19".

United Nations Population Fund

UNFPA History:

UNFPA was started in July 1967 as a trust fund. The trust was called the United Nations Fund for Population. UNFPA was later incorporated into the United Nations in 1972 and was administered by the UNDP and the General Assembly’s authority. In 1987 the trust was renamed the United Nations, Population Fund.

The main objective of UNFPA (The United Nations Population Fund) is to improve maternal health and reproduction in the world. The agency's agendas include gender-based violence, population control awareness, obstetric fistula, female genital mutilation, and health care.

The programs of the UNFPA Agency are supported by more than 150 countries. The agency has about 750 soft workers. UNFPA is currently part of the United Nations. All agencies in the United Nations work for human development.


UNFPA has put forward 17 goals to change the world from 2015 to 2030, with the support of 193 members of the United Nations.

Listed below are UNFPA's Sustainable Development Goals:

* No Poverty.

* Zero Hunger.

* Good Health & Well-Being.

* Quality Education.

* Gender Equality.

* Clean Water & Sanitation.

* Decent Work & Economic Growth.

* Reduced Inequalities.

* Sustainable Cities & communities.

* Climate Action.

* Peace, Justice, & Strong Institutions.

* Partnerships for goals.

UNCTAD (United-Nations-Conference-on-Trade-and-Development)

UNCTAD History:

The convening of the International Economic Forum in 1960 called for the main purpose of the conference to identify the position, actions, and problems of developing countries in the international arena.

In 1964, the United Nations convened the first United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in Geneva.

It was decided to meet once every 4 years, depending on the time taken to address the issues facing the respective countries commercially in the world. During this 4 year dream period logistic and important assistance will be provided through permanent secretariat and intergovernmental bodies meetings.

Developing countries have set up a group of 77 members to express their concerns. The group (G-77) currently has 131 members.

Raúl Prebisch held the position of United Nations Finance Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean and was the first Secretary-General of the United Nations Finance Commission. Raúl Prebisch is a leading economist from Argentina.

Phase 1:

The 1960s to mid-1970s

UNCTAD gained financial status through operations in the early decade.

The intergovernmental forum brought a New International Economic Order to provide interesting topics for developing countries and for North-South dialogue.

Set up to hold analytical discussions on development issues.

Initiation of contracts.

Phase 2:

The 1980s

UNCTAD faced a changing political and economic situation during the 1980s.

Significant changes have taken place in economic affairs. Focused on the privatization of state-owned enterprises and trade facilitation. With this decision, development has become more market-oriented.

Many countries are facing a serious debt crisis. It took a long time to survive despite the help of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Latin America was one of the most economically disadvantaged countries of the 1980s.

Mutual economic dependence on the world has increased significantly. As a result, UNCTAD's development initiatives have been taken further.

The intergovernmental discussion on macro and international financial management and monetary issues strengthened the analytical content.

UNCTAD has expanded its activities to integrate into the world trade system and to provide assistance to developing countries more expeditiously.

The technical assistance rendered by UNCTAD in the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations at this time was very significant. The negotiations began in 1986 under the GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade). UNCTAD has played a key role in supporting the GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) negotiations.

UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) has been instrumental in boosting trade. Developing countries have benefited financially from the decisions taken by UNCTAD.

In 1989 the GSTP (Global System of Trade Preferences) agreement between developing countries came into force. The agreement is currently up to 44 approved.

The first meeting of the United Nations was held in 1981 to address the concerns of the developing world and the poor. Organized two international conferences over a 10-year tenure.

Phase 3:

From the 1990s to the present

Key changes in development in international terms.

"WTO" - (World Trade Organization) launched in 1995. This organization serves to legally regulate world trade.

Faced with economic instability due to economic growth internationally.

UNCTAD has issued an early warning of the devastating impact and financial crisis. UNCTAD describes the development and structure of the international economy.

Have become an important part of foreign investment in globalization.

UNCTAD highlights the need for different ways of dealing with the problems facing developing countries. The 10th UNCTAD Conference was held in Bangkok in February 2000. The Spirit of Bangkok has adopted a political statement as a strategy to address the global development agenda.

UNCTAD on technology, trade, investment, and development focused more on analytical research.

UNCTAD has prepared a positive agenda for developing countries at international trade conferences. This agenda was created specifically to assist in formulating the positions of developing countries and in understanding the complexity of the negotiations.

The New York-based United Nations Center on Multinational Corporations expanded on international investment issues in 1993 after its merger with UNCTAD.

After the merger, it is currently solving problems in the trade, training in commerce. Expands sectors such as investment policy, goods, debt management, policy, competition law, environment, and commerce.

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